The boar diamond is a medicinal and culinary herb almost forgotten today - it tastes unique of lemon, mugwort and Coca-Cola. The rue was used as a medicinal plant to promote digestion. For the same reason, it is an excellent seasoning for fatty meat dishes.
Profile of the boar diamond
- Scientific name: Artemisia abrotanum
- Common names: Cola smoke, cola herb, virgin suffering, iva, gartheil, gotthard, gorthard, goose herb, tripe herb, afrusch, camphor herb, garden healing, garden cock, hoffru, mugwurz (from the celtic "warm"), ambruud (east frisia), herrgottshölzel (east prussia), weinraute Carinthia), Habrat (Carinthia), Lemonikräutel (Lower Austria), Eweritte (Göttingen), Päperboom (Weser), Schmecker (Bavaria), witchweed, lemon herb, stick root, priest herb, pastor herb, boar rice
- family: Daisy family
- Parts of plants used: Herb, upper shoots, seeds / the above-ground dried plant parts
- Occurrence: Originally Albania, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Turkey, Asia Minor. Cultivated especially in Greece and Italy, in Central Europe rather in gardens
- application areas:
- Liver and biliary problems
- Stomach ailments
- Menstrual problems
- Bladder weakness
- to cough
- Malaria and parasitic worms in the digestive tract (historical)
Eberraute - an overview
- Eberraute is related to wormwood and mugwort and the effects overlap.
- Tea from the plant stimulates the immune system.
- Rowan tea is treated as a food and not as a medicine.
- Artemisia abrotanum is a classic bitter substance drug that promotes digestion and stimulates the production of gastric juices.
- The plant has a relaxing, anti-inflammatory and anti-edema effect (water retention in the tissue).
- Eberraute can be used as a medicinal tea or as a healthy herb.
Eberraute contains up to 1.4 percent essential oil and up to three percent abrotanin and bitter substances, including 1,8-cineol and thujone. The main active ingredient is the essential oil eberrautin, in addition there are rutin, coumarin and tannins, fenchene, a-caryophyllene and ß-caryophyllene. Mountain rose oil contains sesquiterpenes such as davanol, davanon and hydroxydavanone. Sesquiterpene lactones and the glycoside rutin are responsible for the bitter taste.
Rake diamond - effects
So far, no monograph has been drawn up for the boar diamond - neither by Commission E of the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices in Germany (BfArM) nor by the Committee for Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) ) or the umbrella organization of national European societies for phytotherapy (English: European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy, ESCOP for short).
However, studies indicate antibacterial activity and effects against bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas, Klebsiella pneumoniae such as Micrococcus luteus. The latter bacterium is not necessarily classified as pathogenic, but can probably cause inflammation of the skin if the immune system is weak.
Pseudomonas is of a completely different caliber. In people whose immune system is malfunctioning, the genus causes infections of wounds and of the respiratory and urinary tract, pneumonia and heart diseases and, as the most immediate danger, can cause fatal blood poisoning (sepsis). Pneumonia caused by these pathogens is the most common cause of death in people with the inherited disease cystic fibrosis (also called cystic fibrosis).
Eberraute should be researched as the basis for future medication because the majority of Pseudomonas strains are resistant to conventional antibiotics. Klebsiella pneumoniae in particular triggers infections of the urinary tract and the respiratory tract.
Malaria and artemisinin
The phytochemical Artemisinin contained in the plant also works against the malaria pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. However, other Artemisia species offer more Artemisinin than the Rue. The flavonoids quercetin and rutin have an anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant and anti-edema (water accumulation).
Tannins for bile and stomach
The tannins and bitter substances are particularly medically effective because they stimulate the digestive juices in the bile, liver and stomach. They promote digestion, help against loss of appetite and relieve stomach ailments as well as stomach cramps and colic-like pain.
The relaxing effect also helps with complaints during menstruation; For the same reason, heavily pregnant women should avoid the herb, as boar rhombus can also cause premature labor. The medicinal plant promotes sweat flow and soothes, so it also helps with febrile illnesses and insomnia.
Eberraute - tea
Artemisia abrotanum can either be eaten or made into a tea. For a tea mug with 300 milliliters of boiling water, you need about a teaspoon of the dried leaves, which take around five minutes, for fresh leaves ten minutes are appropriate. This tea was popular in folk medicine as a remedy for infections, especially among farmers, miners and migrant workers.
A recent study with 27 ice hockey players from the Kölner Haie showed a significantly better defense against infections after the athletes had regularly drunk rue tea for three months. They caught fewer colds, the number of killer cells (NT cells) in the blood doubled on average and the activity of tissue macrophages and T-lymphocytes increased considerably. All three cell types are elementary to fight pathogenic viruses.
The tea should be drunk continuously for at least eight weeks, since it combats less acute diseases, but increases the immune defense in the medium term.
Cola herb and lemon herb
Eberraute is also called cola herb or cola or lemon herb, because it has a unique taste - like a mixture of coca cola and lemon. It tastes as sweet as bitter, as well as mugwort or sage. The pleasure leaves a peppery bitter taste in the mouth.
Eberraute in medical history
Artemisia abrotanum has been handed down as a medicinal plant since ancient times, which is probably also due to the fact that its origin is where the centers of written medicine of antiquity were. According to Hippocrates, she cleaned the uterus, helped with the birth and worked against pneumonia.
The Roman Pliny mentioned them as a component of wound ointments, the Greek doctor Dioskurides recommended the seeds against cramps, hip pain, as a laxative, against internal injuries and shortness of breath, and as an antidote to poisoning.
In Germany it was cultivated as early as the 9th century and was already described in the time of Charlemagne. It was primarily used as a garden plant to keep insects and parasites away from the herbs. The medieval healer Hildegard von Bingen saw it as medicine for stomach ailments. Paracelsus recommended Eberraute for spasms, weakness in limbs, asthma, hip disorders, cough and nerve pain as well as a laxative that also works against worms.
Lonicerus herb book from 1564 named the plant together with celery as a remedy for urinary stones, together with radish oil as a remedy for hair loss and as an envelope for pus bumps. Matthiolus ’New Kreuterbuch from 1626 mentions the plant against asthma, urinary retention, urinary winds (stranguria) and hip disorders. Johann Friedrich Osiander lists Eberraute in 1829 in his work "Volksarzneymittel" against cramps during menstruation.
The doctor, pharmacist and botanist Tabernaemontanus wrote about the rodwort: "Kills and drives out the worms of old people and young children" when (...) "powdered and ingested with milk or honey."
Eberraute is still widely used in folk medicine in Bavaria, Austria and Eastern Europe. The tea serves as a remedy for inflammation of the intestine, lungs and bronchi, against diarrhea and worms. It was popular as an anti-tuberculosis drug in the British Isles. Wassily Demitsch passed on her importance as a people's medicine. He wrote: "The Kyrgyz people use this plant mixed with Schöpsentalg to treat wounds and ulcers."
In Siberia, the rue was a remedy for fever, in Livonia people used it to make an ointment for external wounds and burns. In Russia, too, tea should primarily help against menstrual build-up and worm infestation, as well as against epilepsy and breast disease.
The following presumed effects have been handed down in Central Europe: A tuft under the pillow should kindle the weakened lust of both sexes; Leaf tips mixed with oil and salt were used to relieve fever; the juice mixed with dill oil was said to promote hair growth; an externally applied aqueous extract should alleviate spider and scorpion bites; Pounded leaves in honey were a cough suppressant.
In Hungary, the herb was also a medicine against cramps, but also against diseases of the limbs and chest tightness. In Denmark, boar rhombus boiled in beer should eliminate dandruff, a tea against cough and rapid heartbeat. In Lithuania it was used as a pain reliever and anti-jaundice and in Italy the medicinal plant was mainly used as a medicine for stomach ailments and worms.
Rowan as a love herb
On the border between medicine and mythology, the reputation of the boar rose as an aphrodisiac, as indicated by the German name Jungfernleid and the English "maiden's ruin".
The plant was supposed to stimulate sexual desire in such a way that those affected could hardly tame it. If you wanted to enchant a girl, you would put her branches of boar wreath in your apron and she would fall for it - but after a while the magic vanished and turned into the opposite.
Homeopathy - bitter substances for malicious people
In homeopathy, Eberraute is a remedy for frostbite, scrofulosis, pleurisy (pleurisy), anemia and emaciation. It is said to help in strong dilutions against worm diseases, gout and depression in children.
According to the principle of “healing something similar with something similar”, the typical abrotanum patient in homeopathy is just as “bitter” as the bitter and tannins of the plant. He or she should be grumpy, irritable and malicious. The person was mentally sluggish and conversations would quickly exhaust them. In spite of good appetite, the affected person would be lean, suffer from hemorrhoids and often have blue-red spots on the skin and a wrinkled face.
Ridge diamond - spread
Artemisia abrotanum is native to West Asia and Southeast Europe, it was mentioned very early in the former Yugoslavia, and it still grows there in the wild. Already in ancient times, however, it was a cultivated plant in the Mediterranean region, which the Greeks and Romans specifically cultivated in gardens.
Mugwort and wormwood
Eberraute is a daisy family (Asteraceae) from the genus Artemisia. Thus, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) belong to its relatives.
Where does the name "Eberraute" come from?
The boar diamond does not get its name from the fact that male pigs eat it, but "boar" probably derives from "but". The conjugation "but" before a second sentence limits the meaning of the first or even describes an opposite. The prefix "but" meant "wrong", the "superstition" is the "wrong belief" - the row diamond is therefore the "wrong diamond", just like the rowan is a "wrong" ash. In fact, the (real) diamonds, a family of eight species, are common to the Eberraute from the Mediterranean to West Asia and resemble it superficially.
Sun, sand and stones
Artemisia abrotanum is undemanding, grows on sand, clay or gravel, often close to septic tanks or slurry areas. As a plant in hot summer countries, it loves warm places in full sun as well as loose soil. They are attracted by sand and stones, they cannot stand waterlogging.
It needs little moisture and is suitable for dry stone walls as well as for rock gardens. In the garden, you should even put pumice stone in the ground to create a “Mediterranean” structure. You hardly have to worry about pest control - on the contrary, the essential oils also keep predators away from the neighboring plants.
Lemon herb and moth poison
Stick root was not only popular as a medicinal and aromatic herb, but also served to drive out moths. To do this, hang the dried herb in the closet or put it under the covers during the day. Eberraute with its intense lemon aroma in bags should also improve the indoor air.
Cola herb in the kitchen
The original cola-lemon-mugwort aroma makes the mountain rose an insider tip in the kitchen. Sauces, stews and stews gain flavor from the herb and are easier to digest. Similar to sage, in the Middle Ages people mixed fatty meat such as roast goose or mutton with boar rhombus.
The taste of the plant harmonizes with hot and onion spices such as pepper, chilli, garlic, wild garlic, onion or chives.
Citrus fruits also have a tolerable relationship with the lemon herb, as do other herbs with lemon-like aromas such as lemon balm, lemon thyme or lemon basil.
Artemisia abrotanum also goes well with herbs with cucumber flavors such as borage, pimpinelle, comfrey or cucumber itself. Rowe rhombus and mint make an excellent pair, especially mint leaves with a lemon tinge.
Then as now, Eberraute is best suited for fatty meat dishes, especially goose and duck. In order not to spoil the food, you should use the herb sparingly, because just a few dried leaves spice the whole roast.
Cola herb and white cola
Eberraute not only tastes of Coca Cola, but the innkeeper Peter Leitner from the Mühlviertel in Austria also made it from it. The taste is reminiscent of a coke with a hint of vanilla and mint.
In addition to the cola herb, the drink contains: beet sugar, mint, lemon and lime juice and bourbon vanilla as well as up to 20 spices. The boar diamond used comes from an organic farmer who grows it especially for the manufacturer Johann Steiner. (Dr. Utz Anhalt)
Author and source information
This text corresponds to the requirements of the medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical doctors.
- Demitsch, W .: Russian Folk Remedies from the Plant Kingdom, in: Kobert, Rudolf (ed.): Historical Studies from the Pharmacological Institute of the Imperial University Dorpat, Volume 1, pp. 178 ff., Halle-Saale, 1889, Bavarian State Library
- Deriker, D .: Compilation of folk remedies used by magicians in Russia, St. Petersburg 1866
- Madaus, Gerhard: Textbook of biological remedies, Volume 1, Georg Olms Verlag, 1979
- Randerath, O. et al .: Immunomodulation with Herba abrotani tea and Propionibacterium avidum KP-40 in professional ice hockey players, in: Biology and Medicine, 26 (3): 105-9, 1997
- Singh Bora, Kundan; Sharma, Anupam: The Genus Artemisia: A Comprehensive Review, in: Pharmaceutical Biology, 49: 1, 101-109, August 2010, Taylor & Francis Online
- Suresh, J., Ahuja, J., Paramakrishnan, N., Sebastian, M .: Total Phenolic and Total Flavonoids Content of Aerial Parts of Artemisia abrotanum Linn. and A. pallens Wall, in: Analytical Chemistry Letters, 2/3: 186-191, March 2013, Taylor & Francis Online
- Schneider, Hauke Karsten: Biochemical characterization of secondary metabolic ingredients of the rue (Artemisia abrotanum) and experimental investigations of the immunological, antioxidative and cytotoxic properties, inaugural dissertation to achieve the dignity of a doctor rerum medicinalium of the High Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne, February 2009, German National library
- Reddy, Vasavi A .; Rajan, Dhanya; Nayeemmullah, Mohd: Antimicrobial Activity of Artemisia abrotanum and Artemisia pallens, in: International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 3 (2), June 2011, ResearchGate